What makes a good string datatype? What string features should a programming language provide?

In this blog post, I will discuss the decisions behind strings in Trifle. Our goals are to be unambiguous, flexible, and Unicode friendly.

Supporting Unicode is crucial. Users need to be able to reason about characters (which are Unicode code points) without worrying about representation. Too many languages (e.g. Java, JavaScript) force you to work out how many bytes each character is, in order to simply split a string.

In Trifle, strings are simply sequences of characters. We also provide a bytestring datatype for dealing with arbitrary bytes. This separation allows users to clearly distinguish between handling text and handling binary data. It ensures users know what encoding their files are. It’s too easy otherwise to assume ASCII and hope for the best.

As a result of this design, I discovered that unix doesn’t specify an encoding for file paths. Again, the clear separation between bytes and text makes this unambiguous.

Trifle strings are also mutable. This is unconventional for a modern scripting language, but it has two benefits. Firstly, it allows users to treat strings exactly as lists. Trifle has no separate string API – you just use the normal list functions. Secondly, users do not need to use special functions to manipulate strings efficiently. By contrast, in Java, users are forced to use StringBuilder if they want to build a string efficiently.

String literals in Trifle also offer a few noteworthy features. String literals may contain newlines. For example:

"I'm a string."

"I am also a string, I can
contain newlines with any ceremony."


Preventing newlines in strings is an arbitrary limitation that we don’t need. Trifle does also provide escape sequences, but it’s much stricter. Consider the following string:

"\m\n\o"


What would you expect to see when you print this? Python guesses you forgot to escape your backslashes, so it treats it as "\\m\n\\o". C treats it as "m\no" (with a warning). Whilst the Python behaviour might be convenient for regular expressions, Python provides rawstrings for exactly this purpose already. Trifle considers this a syntax error rather than guessing what the user intended.

To sum up: Trifle presents strings as an abstract datatype, allowing users to be clear about the data they’re handling, and to manipulate arbitrary international text with ease.