Why Markdown Is Not My Favourite Language

Markdown is fast approaching ubiquity. In addition to massive sites such as GitHub and Stack Overflow using it, it’s a default choice for many developers for everything from comments to wikis.

I’ve built two bespoke wiki sites using Markdown, run a blog in Markdown, and used a variety of Markdown sites. I’ve concluded that Markdown is ill-suited for wikis, and often a poor choice in general. Let me count the ways.

You don’t want normal markdown

Out of the box, a standards-compliant markdown parser is confusing, insecure and limited in functionality. The largest users of markdown, such as GitHub, all end up providing their own modified version. This produces fragmentation and prevents reliable, bug-free implementations gaining traction.


Markdown allows embedded HTML. Since this is part of the markdown standard, simply enabling markdown rendering on your site will introduce XSS bugs. Some implementations provide a flag to disable embedded arbitrary HTML, whereas others require you to use a separate HTML sanitisation library.

Since Markdown does not require implementations to offer this flag, too many developers are not even aware there is an issue. Using a templating language with XSS protection does not help, since the rendered Markdown must be marked as not needing escaping.


I built a wiki for a software development company where even the developers would get caught out by the syntax. The Markdown syntax is surprising in a number of ways.

One of the most common issues is mixing bulleted lists (which can start with *) and code snippets (which start with four spaces). A user might write:

* A bullet
* Another bullet

    System.out.println("hello world!");

To their surprise, the code snippet would get treated as normal text, part of the previous bullet point. This is an unfortunate consequence of Markdown supporting multiple paragraphs in a single bullet:

* First bullet

    Another paragraph in the first bullet
* Second bullet

    Another paragraph in the second bullet

The standard is actually ambiguous on this point, although in practice all implementation behave as I describe. The user is forced to either indent by eight spaces, producing code that is part of the preceding bullet:

* Bullet point

        foo(); // indented by eight spaces

Or forced to use an invisible marker, such as   or a comment:

* Bullet point

<!-- don't remove this comment -->


More invisible syntax is required if the user wants a single line break. A simple newline is ignored by Markdown:

This is all on
a single line.

The only solutions within standard Markdown is to insert a literal <br>, or to use two trailing spaces:

This is one line ending with two spaces  
So this is on another line.

This makes editing Markdown files unreasonably difficult. Many well-known sites using Markdown convert a single newline to a <br>. This fixes the immediate problem, but the resulting fragmentation means that users’ experience with Markdown does not necessarily carry over to other sites.

My favourite gotcha with Markdown is the numbering syntax. In many other text markup formats, a specific character is used for numbering, such as #. With plaintext, the user must manually increment numbers themselves. Markdown supports the worst of both worlds, by recognising and renumbering lists. I saw one user write the following:

1. This is my first point.

Since I have a lot to say about my first point, I wrote some more
text here.

2. This is my second point.

I have a lot to say about my second point too, which I am putting

3. This is my third point.

Markdown renumbers this, so every point is number one. This is not what a simple reading of the input would lead you to expect.

Limited features

Despite Markdown’s ubiquity, it is missing several features that my users frequently wanted. It does not support tables, unless the user writes raw embedded HTML. You cannot automatically generate a table of contents based on the headings on piece of Markdown source. Text that is obviously a link is not automatically converted to a link, forcing a rather heavyweight syntax:

Our primary landing page is [http://www.example.com](http://www.example.com)

Stack Overflow supports an alternative syntax for this use case:

Our primary landing page is <http://www.example.com>

Again, this is not knowledge that the user can take with them to other Markdown based sites.

There’s also no support for labelling the language used in code snippets, making highlighting less convenient. There are good tools (for example this) which autodetect the language, but they are unreliable for short code snippets.

Several Markdown implementations offer plugins for some of these missing features. Sadly, some implementations do not support plugins at all, and most do not have plugins for all the features I have listed here. I have also been disappointed with the bugginess of several plugins I tried, as they hadn’t thought about nesting correctly. For example, a user wants their code snippets to be rendered as written, even if the syntax overlaps with table plugin’s syntax.


The Markdown specification is essentially unchanged from 2004. There’s no standard test suite, no updates to resolve ambiguities, and no work being done to standardise the syntax for these language extensions. This would greatly benefit the language today, and make it easier to use in the future.

Alternative 1: ReStructuredText

ReStructuredText (ReST) is a popular text markup developed by the Python community. It provides many more features than Markdown, in a well specified language. ReST replaced an earlier language called StructuredText, but suffers somewhat from the ‘second-system effect’. Whilst it learnt many lessons from its predecessor, it is a big, complex language with few implementations.

ReST requires more learning, a monospaced font, and ‘recompiling’. The Python community replaced LaTeX with ReST for their documentation, so these requirements seem straightforward next to learning TeX and LaTeX. However, ReST is less suited for a simple website where the user is writing in a text box. For example, the following syntax will give an error:


This is because a heading must have an underline that is at least as long as the text. This is fine when using a dedicated text editor, but a pain in a simple browser text editor.

When the syntax is incorrect, ReST shows an error. This is reminiscent of LaTeX where you must fix all your syntax errors before it will render your document. With ReST, these errors are often just shown inline with the rendered HTML. For websites such as wikis, Postel’s law (‘be permissive in what you accept’) is much more suitable. Rather than an ‘edit, view errors, edit, save’ paradigm, a better approach is to use a JavaScript renderer so the user can see a live preview of the output.

Sadly, ReST has no JavaScript implementation. Integrating the major implementation, docutils, is a little more involved than most Markdown implementations (“no, I don’t want the first two headings to have their level ignored and used as page title/page subtitle”).

Whilst ReST has far fewer gotchas, the syntax is more heavyweight and complex. For example, the syntax for headings:

Main heading

A subheading

This appears to be using = to mark top-level headings, but ReST treats the first heading as top-level regardless of which underline character you use. Furthermore, ReST often requires two characters where Markdown would require only one – for example two backticks for inline code, two colons for code blocks:

Call the ``foo`` function::

    foo(1, 2);

Finally, ReST syntax for creating links is very awkward. Inline links require a heavyweight syntax:

See our `home page <http://www.example.com>`_

For many uses of online text markup, this is too common a use case to require so many characters. Links are a fundamental part of HTML.

None of the largest wiki engines (MediaWiki, MoinMoin, etc) use Markdown. Most provide their own markup language, but the syntax between them is usually very similar. However, their syntax is not well specified, and the only existing renderer is an inseparable part of the engine. (This is a common problem for people seeking to do natural language processing of Wikipedia.)

Creole is a project to find a common syntax between these different wiki engines. They have produced a comprehensive specification, and many implementations exist. Importantly, there are JavaScript implementations, making it straightforward to build a real-time preview. This is difficult in Markdown because any plugins or non-standard modifications must be replicated in both the server-side code and client-side preview rendering.

The Creole specification is evolving, adding new features and fixing problems as they arrive. The syntax is lightweight, tried and tested in a large number of environments. Common use cases are simple. The syntax is a best-of-breed result, avoiding the mistakes made in the engines which first implemented a wiki syntax.

Whilst the syntax supports fewer features than ReST, you’d be hard pressed to find things you will miss in practice: you get basic formatting, links, headings, code snippets (though no way to specify language), tables, and images. This more than enough for the vast majority of use cases, without plugins.

Next time you’re looking for a simple markup to HTML solution, try Creole.

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